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- 10/08/18--00:00: Cu segregation at α -Al (1 1 1)/ δ ′ -Al 3 Li (1 1 1) interface
Artificial immune system is a class of computational intelligence methods drawing inspiration from biological immune system. As one type of popular artificial immune computing model, clonal selection algorithm (CSA) has been widely used for many optimization problems. When dealing with complex optimization problems, such as the characteristics of multimodal, high-dimension, rotational, the traditional CSA often suffers from diversity loss, poor search ability, premature convergence and stagnation. To address the problems, a modified combinatorial recombination is introduced to bring diversity to the population and avoid the premature convergence. Moreover, the success-history based adaptive mutation strategy is introduced to form a success-history based adaptive mutation based clonal selection algorithm to improve the search ability. The mutation operator is also modified and analyzed through experimental comparison. To further improve the precision and cope with the stagnation, the gene knockout strategy is proposed. The proposed algorithm is tested on CEC 2014 benchmarks and compared with state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms. The experimental results show that MSHCSA is quite competitive.
Segregation behaviors of Cu at α-Al (1 1 1) (1 1 1)/ δ′-Al3Li (1 1 1) interface were investigated with the first-principle pseudopotential plane-wave method. The results show that the most stable atomic coordination relations for α-Al (1 1 1)/δ′-Al3Li (1 1 1) interface is the structure of which the ABC stacking order of FCC lattice along (1 1 1) direction is kept at both two interfaces of Al and Al3Li phases. At 1/4 ML coverage, Cu atom is inclined to be segregated at α-Al (1 1 1)/δ′-Al3Li (1 1 1) interface by adopting the interstitial rather than the substitution mode. The favorite interstitial site is the position where Cu atom is surrounded by three symmetrical Al atoms. Based on the calculation of separation work, we predicted that interstitial Cu can effectively improve the strength of the whole interface region, especially the area inside Al matrix, this is in agreement with the experimental results.
The sandstone from the Oligocene Xiaganchaigou Formation (E3) in the Lengdong area, Qaidam Basin, China, is extensively distributed and acts as an effective regional reservoir for hydrocarbon accumulation. Based on thin sections, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) image analysis and cathodoluminescence (CL), a comprehensive analysis of the sedimentology, petrography, diagenesis and reservoir quality of the Oligocene sandstone reservoirs of the Xiaganchaigou (E3) Formation in the Lengdong area, Qaidam Basin, are studied. The sandstones in the Lengdong area are classified as argillaceous sandstone, silty sandstone, fine sandstone, medium sandstone, pebbly sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone and conglomerate based on their grain sizes, degrees of sorting, and matrix contents. Five sedimentary facies were identified in the Xiaganchaigou Formation (E3) of the Lengdong area, Qaidam Basin: distributary channel, interdistributary bay, mouth bar, central bar and distal sand sheet facies. Their major diagenetic processes include compaction, carbonate cementation and feldspar and calcite cement dissolution. The porosity and permeability values of the fine sandstone, conglomerate, and conglomeratic sandstone are the highest, followed by those of the medium sandstone and silty sandstone, and the argillaceous sandstone and pebbly sandstone have the lowest porosity and permeability values. The diagenetic sequence in the study area ranges from the eodiagenesis B stage to the mesodiagenetic A stage. Compaction has significantly reduced the primary porosity. Carbonate cements, mainly calcite cements, occlude pores by precipitating in intergranular and intragranular spaces. Dissolution largely contributes to increasing the secondary porosity. The well-sorted and relatively coarser-grained sandstones that formed in higher-energy sedimentary facies (distributary channel, mouth bar and central bar) have a better reservoir quality than the poorly sorted, clay-rich sandstones that formed in low-energy environments (interdistributary bay and distal sand sheet). Based on the comprehensive analysis of petrographic data, diagenesis and sedimentary facies, the reservoir in the Lengdong area is classified into three types: type A, type B and type C. Type A, located in the center of the study area, is the most favorable reservoir, while type C sandstone is the last to consider when looking for a good reservoir. This study can guide hydrocarbon exploration in the Lengdong area, as well as in northwestern China and similar areas throughout the world.